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Eosinophils: old players in a new game

Sastre B1,2, Rodrigo-Muñoz JM1,2, Garcia-Sanchez DA1, Cañas JA1,2, del Pozo V1,2

1Department of Immunology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain;
2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES).

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2018; Vol. 28(5)
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0295

Eosinophils are terminal polymorphonuclear cells originated from bone marrow with an important number of cytoplasmic granules, some of them are exosomes, which contain multiple molecules such as specific eosinophilic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, and lipid mediators that contribute to effector role of these cells. Moreover, they present a large number of receptors that allow them interact with multiple cellular types. Eosinophils play an important role in defence against infestations and they are a key element in asthma and allergic diseases. Eosinophils are recruited to the inflammation area in response to several stimuli, modulating immune response through the release to extracellular medium their granule-derived content, existing different mechanisms of degranulation. These polymorphonuclear leukocytes contain multivesicular bodies that generate exosomes which are secreted into extracellular environment. These eosinophilic exosomes participate in multiple process and mechanisms. In relation to asthma disease, eosinophils participate actively to hallmarks of this pathology. These cells migrate to inflammatory focus and contribute to epithelium damage and airway remodeling. Due to their relevance in this pathology, new therapeutic tools have been developed with eosinophils and their receptors like main targets.
In this manuscript, we provide a global vision and updated about biology of eosinophils, their role in respiratory diseases, focusing our attention in asthma pathology, likewise a resume about the treatments in asthma linked to eosinophils and new therapeutic strategies based in biological products in which eosinophils and their receptors are the main targets.

Key words: Eosinophils, Exosomes, Asthma, Biological treatments