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Increasing incidence of paediatric eosinophilic esophagitis in the southwestern of the region of Madrid

La Orden Izquierdo E1, Gutiérrez Junquera C2, Mahillo-Fernández I3, Subiza Garrido-Lestache J4, Román Riechmann E2

1Hospital U. Infanta Elena
2Hospital U. Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda
3Hospital U. Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid
4Clínica Subiza, Madrid

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2019; Vol. 29(1)
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0280

Objectives: The incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown in our area. The aim of our study is to determine the incidence of diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis and its possible association with the most frequent absolute annual pollen counts.
Methods: A descriptive retrospective multicenter observational study was designed to calculate the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis in children under 15 years in the southwest of the region of Madrid in 2002-2013 (provided by the Statistics Institute of Madrid). We collected patient data on age, sex, clinical presentation and date of endoscopic diagnosis. Relative risk estimation was performed (Stata v.11) using negative binomial regression models to assess the association between the incidence and pollen counts (provided by Subiza Clinic).
Results: Two hundred fifty-four patients, 75.6% male (n = 192) aged between 0.5-14.99 years were diagnosed. The clinical presentation was esophageal impaction 23.6%, dysphagia 22%, “gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms” 44.9% and others 9.4%. The annual incidences from 2002 to 2013 per 100,000 children under 15 years / year were respectively: 0.81; 1.5; 0.37; 3.17; 3.07; 4.36; 6.87; 7.19; 8.38; 9.05; 9.14 and 9.68. The incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis increased by an average of 19% annually (RR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.14-1.25, p <0.001). In the overall analysis the relationship between incidence and absolute annual and monthly counts during times of pollination of pollen types analyzed only Platanus spp had a RR> 1 (1.17 and 1.06, respectively) (P <0.05).
Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis has increased by an average of 19% annually. No significant association was found between the incidence and pollen counts, except for a weak association with Platanus spp.

Key words: Pollen. Eosinophilic esophagitis. Epidemiology.