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Molecular Sensitization Profile to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dust Mite in Portugal

Limão R1,2, Spínola Santos A1,2, Araújo L2,3, Cosme J1,2, Inácio F2,4, Tomaz E4, Ferrão A5, Santos N6, Sokolova A2,7, Môrete A8, Falcão H9, Cunha L9, Ferreira A10, Bras A11, Ribeiro F11, Lozoya C12, Leiria Pinto P13, Prates S13, Plácido J14, Coimbra A14, Taborda-Barata L15, Pereira Santos MC2,16, Pereira Barbosa M1,16,17, Pineda F18

1Immunoallergology Department, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Portugal
2Allergen and Immunotherapy Interest Group, Sociedade Portuguesa de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica, Portugal
3Immunoallergology Department, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Portugal
4Immunoallergology Department, Hospital de São Bernardo, Setúbal, Portugal
5Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital do Espírito Santo de Évora, Portugal
6Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital de Portimão, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Algarve, Portugal
7Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca, Amadora-Sintra, Portugal
8Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital de Aveiro, Centro Hospitalar Baixo Vouga, Portugal
9Immunoallergology Department, Hospital de Santo António, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal
10Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital das Forças Armadas, Lisboa, Portugal
11Immunoallergology Unit, Hospital de Faro, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Algarve, Portugal
12Immunoallergology Unit, Unidade Local de Saúde de Castelo Branco, Portugal
13Immunoallergology Department, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Portugal
14Immunoallergology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal
15Immunoallergology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Cova da Beira, Covilhã, Portugal
16Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
17University Clinic of Immunoallergology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
18Diater Laboratorio de Diagnostico y Aplicaciones Terapeuticas SA, Madrid, Spain

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2022; Vol. 32(1)
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0533

Objective: To analyze component resolved diagnosis to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) in patients with respiratory allergy and its relationship with clinical severity in different geographical areas.
Methods: 217 patients (mean age 25.85±12.7 years; 51.16% females) were included, selected from 13 centers in Portugal (5 from North, n=65). All had allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and had positive skin prick tests to at least one dust mite. Specific IgE (sIgE) to Der p, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Der p1, Der p 2, Der p 10 and Der p 23 were determined by ImmunoCAP. Statistical analysis (Mann Whitney U test) compared patients with rhinitis vs rhinitis and asthma; mild vsmoderate-to-severe rhinitis; North vs South.
Results: Prevalence of sensitization was 98.2% to Der p, and 72.4%, 89.4%, 9.7% and 77% to Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 10 and Der p 23, respectively. Corresponding median sIgE levelswere 8.56, 17.7, 0.01 and 3.95 kUA/L. sIgE to all allergens was higher in patients with moderate-to-severe rhinitis and rhinitis with asthma but not statistically significant (NSS). sIgE to Der p 2 was significantly higher in the South when compared with the North (p=0.0496).
Conclusions: Sensitization to Der p is the most common in Portugal. Der p 2 had the highest prevalence and median sIgE levels. All sIgE to molecular components were higher in more symptomatic patients (NSS). sIgE to Der p 2 was higher in the South, which may be related to the warmer temperature and/or the larger sample size.

Key words: Allergy, Asthma, Component Resolved Diagnosis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dust Mites, Rhinitis, Specific IgE