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Differences in molecular sensitization profiles between a Spanish and Latin American mite allergic patients

Calzada D1, Bartra J2, Serrano CD3, Riggioni S4, Moran E5, Maselli JP5, Silva DL3, Ramirez LF3, Pascal M6, Carnés J1, Valero A7

1Unidad I+D. LETI Pharma. S.L.u. Madrid, España
2Servicio de Alergología, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS Barcelona, RICORS, España
3Unidad de Alergia, Fundación Valle del Lili. Cali, Colombia
4Centro Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de Alergia. San José, Costa Rica
5Universidad Rafael Landivar, Facultad de Medicina, Catedra de Inmunología, Guatemala City, Guatemala
6Servicio de Inmunología, CDB, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS Barcelona, RICORS, España
7Servicio de Alergología, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS Barcelona, CIBERES, España

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2025; Vol. 35(2)
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0968

Objective: To analyze the sensitization pattern to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and to associate the diagnostic findings and clinical severity in 218 allergic patients from two different continents.
Methods: Mite allergic patients were recruited by the Allergology departments from Latin America (n=88: Colombia, Costa Rica and Guatemala) and Spain (N=130). All patients had allergic rhinitis with or without asthma and positive skin prick test results to D. pteronyssinus. Specific IgE levels to D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 23 were quantified by ImmunoCAP system (ThermoFisher Scientific). Allergenic profile was also determined by western blot. Comparative Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad software.
Results: Patients recognized most frequently Der p 2 (79%) followed by Der p 1 (73%), and Der p 23 (69%) allergens. The percentage of asthmatic patients increases with the number of sensitizations however none statistically significant differences were found. Interestingly, asthmatic patients presented the highest median levels of total IgE and specific IgE levels of D. pteronyssinus and molecular allergens, mainly Der p 2.
Analysing the two different populations, Spanish patients were predominantly sensitized to Der p 2 (88.46%) and Der p 1 (83.84%), whereas Latin American population were more sensitized to Der p 23.
Conclusions: Our data support the relevance of Der p 2 in mite allergy as the major allergen, with the high number of patients sensitized to it and its importance in the development of asthma. Sensitization to Der p 23 was more important in Latin America.

Key words: House dust mites, sensitization profile, Component-resolved molecular diagnosis of allergy, specific IgE, allergic asthma, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus