Association Between Asthma and Sensitization to Allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
Vidal C1, Lojo S2, Juangorena M1, Gonzalez-Quintela A3
1Department of Allergy, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de
2Department of Biochemistry, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de
3Department of Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2016; Vol 26(5)
Background and Objective: Little is known about the role of molecular diagnosis in house dust mite (HDM) allergy. In this study, we investigated the association between the sensitization profile of adolescent and adult HDM-allergic patients and asthma in a region with high rates of exposure to HDM.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 384 HDM-allergic patients (38.5%, males; median age, 28 years). A total of 368 patients (95.8%) had rhinitis, and 175 (45.6%) had asthma. Specific IgE (sIgE) to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rPen a 1 was measured in all patients. sIgE to Lepidoglyphus destructor was measured in patients (n=301) with a positive skin test result.
Results: Significantly higher concentrations of sIgE to Der p 1 and sIgE to Der p 2 were observed in patients with asthma than in those without asthma. The proportion of asthmatic patients was higher among individuals who reacted (≥0.35 kUA/L) to both Der p 1 and Der p 2 (147/291, 50.5%) than among those who reacted to only 1 allergen (either Der p 1 or Der p 2, 18/55, 32.7%) or neither allergen (10/38, 26.3%, P=.002). Reactivity to both allergens was associated with asthma after adjusting for age and sex (OR, 2.87; 95%CI, 1.32-6.20). Higher concentrations of sIgE to L destructor were observed in patients with asthma than in patients without asthma. Tropomyosin sIgE ≥0.35 kUA/L was detected in only 6 individuals (1.6%).
Conclusions: L destructor may be a relevant allergen in high-exposure areas. Dual sensitization (ie, IgE to both Der p 1 and Der p 2) may help to identify HDM-allergic patients who are at risk of asthma.
Key words: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p 1, Der p 2, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD), Asthma.