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Latest Insights on Food Protein–Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: An Emerging Medical Condition

Vila Sexto L

Pediatric Allergy Department, Children’s Hospital Teresa Herrera, La Coruña, Spain

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2018; Vol 28(1) : 13-23
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0192

Food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a type of non–IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity characterized by profuse vomiting that is frequently associated with pallor or/and lethargy and appears within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the offending food. A less frequent chronic form of FPIES is characterized by protracted vomiting, diarrhea, or both accompanied by poor growth.
Although FPIES is considered a rare allergic disorder, increasing reports in recent years point to a real increase in incidence, or at least an increased awareness of this condition by pediatricians.
The foods most frequently implicated are cow’s milk, soy formula, grains, and fish, depending on the geographic area. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and requires a high index of suspicion, since we still lack a diagnostic laboratory tool. Early recognition of FPIES and removal of the offending food are mandatory. International consensus guidelines on diagnosis and management have been published. Prognosis is usually good, with most children tolerating foods before 6 years of age.

Key words: FPIES, Food-induced enterocolitis, Food allergy, Ondansetron, Oral food challenge, Cow’s milk, Fish