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Eosinophilic Esophagitis due to Aeroallergens: A Systematic Review and Update

Gratacós Gómez AR, Gómez Torrijos E

Allergology Department, Hospital General Universitario, Ciudad Real, Spain

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2022; Vol 32(6) : 438-450
doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0853

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by TH2 inflammation (at least 15 eosinophils/high power field) when other secondary systemic and local causes of esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. Although this disease was initially ascribed to a delayed reaction to food allergens, emerging evidence suggests that aeroallergens may also play a role in pathogenesis and disease course.
Some studies support seasonal variations in the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis and disease exacerbations owing to the increase in aeroallergens to which patients are sensitized. It is also known that this disease can be caused by extensive, identifiable exposure to aeroallergens and after treatment with specific immunotherapy based on food or aeroallergens. It was recently postulated that treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis can improve the symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis, although data are limited to case reports and small series. Currently, biomarkers and biologic therapies are not helpful for diagnosis or inducing clinical and histological remission of the disease. Nevertheless, there are high hopes for dupilumab.
This review aims to give visibility to the involvement of aeroallergens in the triggering and exacerbation of eosinophilic esophagitis, since many of them, in addition to being airborne and inhalant, can also be ingested as food. Clearly, we must try to identify the cause of the disease to ensure remission.

Key words: Eosinophilic esophagitis, Aeroallergens, Rhinitis, Pollen, Asthma